Saturday, April 21, 2018

Taiwanese Green Propolis Delays Progression of Type 2 Diabetes

Taiwanese Green Propolis Ethanol Extract Delays the Progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Rats Treated with Streptozotocin/High-Fat Diet

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Nutrients. 2018 Apr 18;10(4)

Taiwanese green propolis ethanol extract (TGPE) is produced only in Taiwan and has a different composition from other types of propolis. TGPE is known for its anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-microbial properties, but the effects and mechanisms of TGPE in the modulation of diabetes are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGPE on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a streptozotocin/high-fat-diet (STZ/HFD)-induced T2DM rat model.

The results revealed that TGPE delayed the development and progression of T2DM and reduced the severity of β-cell failure. TGPE also attenuated inflammation and reactive oxygen species ROS in the rats. Moreover, there were higher levels of oxidant cytokines, leptin, and adiponectin in the serum of the TGPE-treated group. Unlike Brazilian propolis, TGPE promoted hepatic genes PPAR-α and CYP7A1, which were related to lipid catabolism and removal. TGPE may thus delay the progression of T2DM through anti-inflammation effects, anti-oxidation effects, and balancing lipid metabolism.

It is suggested that TGPE can be a potential alternative medicine for T2DM.

Friday, April 20, 2018

Propolis Might Serve as Protective Agent Against Post-Surgical Adhesive Complications

Evaluation of the effects of Iranian propolis on the severity of post operational-induced peritoneal adhesion in rats

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Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Mar;99:346-353


Peritoneal adhesion is a major complication of surgery that can lead to serious problems such as bowel obstruction, pain, infertility and even mortality. Propolis is a honey bee product with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities that could potentially protect against adhesive surgical complications.


Forty 8-weeks-old rats (275 ± 25 g) were divided into five groups: normal group without any surgical procedure, and experimental groups treated with normal saline, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of propolis. Peritoneal adhesions were examined macroscopically and also, the levels of inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α), growth factors (TGF-β1 and VEGF) were evaluated in the study groups using ELISA. Biochemical indices of oxidative status including Nitric Oxide (NO), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione (GSH) were also measured.


Peritoneal adhesion scores, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β1, VEGF, NO, GSH and MDA levels were significantly different between the study groups (p < 0.001). Propolis treatment reduced peritoneal adhesion (p < 0.001), TNF-α (p < 0.001), IL-1β (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p < 0.001), TGF-β1 (p < 0.001), VEGF (p < 0.001), NO (p < 0.001) and MDA (p < 0.001), while GSH levels were increased (p < 0.001) compared with the vehicle group. Our results showed that higher dose of propolis was associated with significantly greater reductions in peritoneal adhesion (p < 0.001), TNF-α (p < 0.001), IL-1β (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p < 0.001), VEGF (p < 0.001), NO (p < 0.001) and MDA (p < 0.001), a greater increase in GSH levels (p < 0.001) compared with the lower dose.


Propolis treatment can dose-dependently reduce peritoneal adhesion through its anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antioxidant properties. Therefore, propolis might serve as a protective agent against post-surgical adhesive complications.

Thursday, April 19, 2018

Manuka Honey Helps Treat Blemishes, Acne, Burns, and Rashes

Manuka Honey, a powerful remedy for your skin woes

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Telangana Today

Bloggers and Instagrammers swear by this dark honey and use it for their skin, teeth and for minor illnesses. And with summer playing havoc with our skin, this particular honey straight from the forests of New Zealand is a perfect foil for blemishes, tanning, burns and rashes.

Brazilian Red Propolis may Help Treat Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease

Antitrypanosomal, antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of Brazilian red propolis and plant resin of Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L) Taub

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Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Apr 14

The treatment for leishmaniasis and Chagas disease can be hard and painful, such that many patients give up on the treatment.

In order to find an alternative path for the treatment of these diseases, researchers are using natural products to fight these parasites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiprotozoan and cytotoxic activities of red propolis samples collected from different Brazilian states and seasons whilst searching for possible activity differences.

We also compared the red propolis results with the ones obtained for the plant resin extract collected from Dalbergia ecastophyllum trees. The hydroethanolic red propolis extracts from Pernambuco and Alagoas, and the D. ecastaphyllum resin were evaluated regarding their antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal and cytotoxic activity.

All extracts showed antiprotozoan and cytotoxic activity. RP-PER showed to be more cytotoxic against protozoan parasites and fibroblast cells. All propolis extracts showed a higher cytotoxic activity when compared to resin extracts.

The propolis sample collected in Pernambuco during the rainy season killed the parasites with lower concentrations than the sample collected in the dry season. The IC50 observed against the parasites could be used without high fibroblast cell damage.

Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Propolis Boosts Tonsillectomy Wound Healing

Effect of Topical Propolis on Wound Healing Process After Tonsillectomy: Randomized Controlled Study

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Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol


The post-tonsillectomy pain and post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage are the two main problems after tonsillectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of water soluble ethanol extract propolis on post-tonsillectomy patient.


One hundred and thirty patients who underwent tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were randomly divided into the control and propolis groups, each including 65 patients. The propolis group was applied with propolis orally immediately after surgery and by gargle. The pain scores were assessed on post-tonsillectomy 0, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 7th-10th day using a visual analogue scale score. Postoperative wound healing was evaluated by scoring pinkish membrane of tonsillar fossae on postoperative days 3 and 7-10. The incidence of post-tonsillectomy bleeding was examined in each group.


Post-tonsillectomy pain was significantly less in propolis group compared to control group on postoperative days 3 and 7-10. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage was significantly less in the propolis group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The wound healing was significantly better in the propolis group compared to the control group on postoperative day 7-10 (P = 0.002).


Applying the propolis to post-tonsillectomy wound showed beneficial effect of reducing postoperative pain, preventing hemorrhage, and accelerating of wound healing of tonsillar fossae.

Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Black Seed, Egyptian Honey Show Strong Antibacterial Effects Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

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Isolation and identification of bacteria causing mastitis in small ruminants and their susceptibility to antibiotics, honey, essential oils, and plant extracts

Vet World. 2018 Mar;11(3):355-362

The present work aims to isolate and identify bacteria that cause mastitis in small ruminants and evaluates the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics, honey, essential oils, and plant extracts.

Materials and Methods:

A total of 289 milk samples were collected from udder secretions of sheep (n=189) and goat (n=100) from El-Fayoum, Beni-Suef, and Giza governorates. Screening subclinical mastitis (SCM) was done using California Mastitis Test (CMT); identification of the isolates was achieved using Gram's staining, hemolytic pattern, colony morphology, and biochemical tests using Analytical Profile Index.


On clinical examination, the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) was found to be 5.88% and 7% in sheep and goat, respectively. On CMT, SCM was found to be 25 (13.23%) and 11 (10%) in sheep and goat, respectively. Bacteriological examination of all milk samples found the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) (31.1%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (19.5%), Escherichia coli (EC) (8.3%), Streptococcus spp. (5.6%), Klebsiella spp. (3.77%), and Pseudomonas spp. (1.89%), while no bacteria were cultured from 81.66% of the samples. Identification of 9 isolates of CNS was achieved by using API staph test to Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The highest bacterial resistance was found in EC (67.14%) followed by Kp (45.28%) and SA (26.57%).


Onion and black cumin essential oils followed by Egyptian honey showed strong antibacterial effects against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Finally, our study proved that Egyptian honey, onion, and black cumin essential oils have a marked strong antibacterial effect against bacteria isolated from small ruminant mastitis, but still further extensive studies are needed to discover the therapeutic properties of these plant extracts and honey.

Monday, April 16, 2018

Propolis and Bee Pollen Protect the Liver

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Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Propolis and Bee Pollen on Liver Pathology in Broiler Chickens

Animals (Basel). 2018 Apr 9;8(4). pii: E54

One of the major problems in intensive breeding of chickens is liver damage. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary supplementation with propolis and bee pollen on liver pathology in broiler chickens. The study was conducted on 200 Ross 308 chickens equally distributed by sex that were divided into five groups. Throughout the whole study, the control group of chickens was fed with a basal diet, while the experimental groups of chickens were fed with the same diet further supplemented with propolis and bee pollen, each supplement given separately or in combination in a certain proportion.

The study showed that the clusters of lymphocytes in the hepatocytes, the vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of the liver parenchyma, the bile ductule hyperplasia, and the various forms of pathological changes in the liver arteries and veins were more frequent in liver tissue samples of the control group compared to liver tissue samples of all the experimental groups (p < 0.001). The study further showed that all the previously mentioned histopathological lesions of liver tissue were always more extensive in the liver tissue samples of the control group than in the liver tissue samples of all the experimental groups (p < 0.001). The supplementation of broiler chickens with propolis and/or bee pollen has a strong protective effect on liver pathology in broiler chickens.

Sunday, April 15, 2018

Bee Venom Used to Treat Arthritis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, Liver Fibrosis, Atherosclerosis

Bee venom therapy: Potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications

Toxicon. 2018 Apr 11. pii: S0041-0101(18)30145-4

Bee venom is a very complex mixture of natural products extracted from honey bee which contains various pharmaceutical properties such as peptides, enzymes, biologically active amines and nonpeptide components.

The use of bee venom into the specific points is so called bee venom therapy, which is widely used as a complementary and alternative therapy for 3000 years. A growing number of evidence has demonstrated the anti-inflammation, the anti-apoptosis, the anti-fibrosis and the anti-arthrosclerosis effects of bee venom therapy. With these pharmaceutical characteristics, bee venom therapy has also been used as the therapeutic method in treating rheumatoid arthritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, liver fibrosis, atherosclerosis, pain and others.

Although widely used, several cases still reported that bee venom therapy might cause some adverse effects, such as local itching or swelling. In this review, we summarize its potential mechanisms, therapeutic applications, and discuss its existing problems.

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Saturday, April 14, 2018

Propolis Helps Treat Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) Infections that Cause Ulcers

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Propolis: The future therapy against Helicobacter pylori-mediated gastrointestinal diseases

Journal of Applied Biomedicine
Volume 16, Issue 2, May 2018, Pages 81-99

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which is found in the stomach of approximately 50% of humans, remains there for almost the entire lifetime of the infected individual, leading to various gastrointestinal tract-associated disorders following full-blown infection.

Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance, recurrence and high cost of therapy, most antibiotic-based treatment strategies are not very effective in eradicating H. pylori infections. The quest for an alternative treatment free of these inconveniences is currently in demand. One of the important alternatives is propolis, produced by the honeybee Apis mellifera, which has been used to treat different diseases since it possesses a wide range of biochemical properties.

Propolis has been reported as a useful therapeutic regimen against H. pylori, which is an important cause of gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. Apart from propolis, various active compounds of other natural products have also been confirmed to be effective.

This review compiles the scientific evidence of the role of propolis and other natural products against H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal tract-related health complexities by acing as an anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant factor as well as via modulation of enzymatic activities.

Friday, April 13, 2018

Propolis Component May Help Prevent Diabetic Nephropathy

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Effect of Pinocembrin Isolated from Mexican Brown Propolis on Diabetic Nephropathy

Molecules 2018, 23(4), 852

Propolis is a resinous beehive product that has been used worldwide in traditional medicine to prevent and treat colds, wounds, rheumatism, heart disease and diabetes.

Diabetic nephropathy is the final stage of renal complications caused by diabetes and for its treatment there are few alternatives.

The present study aimed to determine the chemical composition of three propolis samples collected in Chihuahua, Durango and Zacatecas and to evaluate the effect of pinocembrin in a model of diabetic nephropathy in vivo. Previous research demonstrated that propolis of Chihuahua possesses hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities. Two different schemes were assessed, preventive (before renal damage) and corrective (once renal damage is established).

In the preventive scheme, pinocembrin treatment avoids death of the rats, improves lipid profile, glomerular filtration rate, urinary protein, avoid increases in urinary biomarkers, oxidative stress and glomerular basement membrane thickness.

Whereas, in the corrective scheme, pinocembrin only improves lipid profile without showing improvement in any other parameters, even pinocembrin exacerbated the damage.

In conclusion, pinocembrin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy when there is no kidney damage but when it is already present, pinocembrin accelerates kidney damage

Thursday, April 12, 2018

Brazilian Green Propolis May Help Treat Colitis

Brazilian green propolis hydroalcoholic extract reduces colon damages caused by dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice


This study investigated the effects of Brazilian green propolis hydroalcoholic extract (BPE) in 3% w/v dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.

The effects of BPE (3, 30 and 300 mg/kg, p.o, by 7 days) on the morphological (colon length and colon weight), clinical (disease activity index and weight loss), microscopic (histological score and mucin levels) and biochemical parameters were determined. The effects of BPE (300 mg/kg, p.o) in the gastrointestinal transit of mice were also evaluated.

As expected, the DSS ingestion damaged the colonic tissue, lowered the body weight, decreased the mucin levels, increased MPO activity, reduced SOD activity and GSH amount. In contrast, the treatment with BPE (300 mg/kg) significantly reduced macroscopic colonic injury and the mucosal damage in colon on histopathological examination and reversed the decrease in mucin levels induced by DSS. It also significantly normalized the SOD activity and the levels of GSH, but did not elicit any effect on MPO activity in the colon. In addition, BPE did not change the gastric emptying or the intestinal transit rate of mice.

Together, these results suggested that BPE reduced the signs of DSS-induced colitis in mice through maintenance of intestinal mucin barrier and favoring intestinal antioxidant defenses.


Wednesday, April 11, 2018

NIGERIA: The Health Benefits of Bee Products

Health benefits

The Nation, April 8, 2018

Exploring the heath benefits of bee products in the recent times has been an area which researchers are beaming their search light on due to the wonders which honey and its ally products are recording. According to FAO, there is a considerable history of bees and bee products having medicinal properties. For instance, honey, pollen, propolis, wax, royal jelly and venom are seen by many to have curative properties even though others suggest the contrary as a result of a lack of critical scientific scrutiny on bee products.

However, majority of the bee farmers that spoke to The Nation are very authoritative about the medicinal potency of bees and its products.

Onyema who had been in the business of bee keeping in the last two decades explained that from experience he had cured a lot of diseases with bee products. “We also have bee pollen, it is used as a food for the young bee, and it is a perfect food because it contains all what the body requires. It is also used for fertility in both man and woman. If it is taking for some days, it can also cure prostate cancer in men.”

The bee bread which the bee itself takes is a good medicinal product. “It is useful because of the enzymes present through the worker bee. Royal jelly is one of the precious gems given to the Queen bee. The Queen bee can live up to six years, but the worker bee, for only a month. By taking royal jelly one will be looking younger than ones actual age. It helps in taking care of women infertility. If a woman can be taking it few days to her ovulation period, it will actually boost it.”

According to him, “The bee venom is the stings; it serves as its defensive mechanism, it comes out of the bee lancets, it carries a liquid that it injects into the body, it is poured into the body through venom sack. That is why when it stings you, you can quickly remove it to reduce the venom pumped into the body. This bee venom is telepathic.  I used it to treat a diabetic and arthritics patients.”

Speaking in the same vein, Adegun who had a long romance with bee explained that the healing prowess of the wonderful insect cannot be quantified.  “There are different types of honey. The bitter honey is highly medicinal and there is no disease it cannot treat, blood pressure, diabetes even cancer and skin rashes.

“With honey it can assist against ageing, it can also   be used for preservatives. That is why the old Egyptians usually used honey to embalm their dead bodies.   It is rich in propolis that is good for preservation. It also contains a royal jelly which can be combined with other things and used for fertility drug and impotence.”

He explained that “Through articulated and methodological approach to honey product, a lot of sickness can be cured. Honey can cure some diseases that cannot be emphatically or scientifically proved.”

Given credence to the medicinal efficacy of bee products Prof. Siyanbola said that beeswax is used in food processing industries as an additive and a common ingredient in chewing gum adding that skin care and cosmetic industry are using it in making lips and gloss balm.

The researcher said bee glue is used as antibiotic and anti -fungal agent in the pharmaceutical industries while in natural medicine it is used to treat inflammations, viral disease, ulcers skin burns and scalds...

Major Royal Jelly Proteins Can Reach the Small Intestine When Ingested

The fate of major royal jelly proteins during proteolytic digestion in the human gastrointestinal tract

J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Apr 9

Royal jelly (RJ) is a beehive product with a complex composition, major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) being the most abundant proteins. Cell culture and animal studies suggest various biological activities for the full-length/native MRJPs.

In the field of apitherapy it is assumed that MRJPs can positively affect human health. However, whenever RJ is administered orally, the availability for assimilation in the gastrointestinal tract is a prerequisite for MRJPs to have any effect on humans.

We here show that MRJPs vary in resistance to Pepsin digestion with MRJP2 being most stable and still present as full-length protein after 24h of digestion. In the intestinal phase, using Trypsin and Chymotrypsin, MRJPs are rapidly digested with MRJP2 again showing longest stability (40 min) suggesting that MRJPs can reach the small intestine as full length proteins but then have to be resorbed quickly if full length proteins are to fulfil any biological activity.

Tuesday, April 10, 2018



About the product
  • Double-Sealed Bottle to Ensure Freshness and Purity
  • 100 Count, Capsule Shell: Vegetable Cellulose
  • Bottled in the United States at an NSF, Organic and Kosher Certified-Facility that Adheres to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
  • Stringent Quality Control Process Monitors Production from Raw Materials to Finished Product
  • Product is Tested and Inspected at Intervals During Manufacture

Brazilian Green Propolis Protects Against Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia)

Brazilian Green Propolis Prevents Cognitive Decline into Mild Cognitive Impairment in Elderly People Living at High Altitude

J Alzheimers Dis. 2018 Apr 4


Systemic inflammation is known as a risk factor of cognitive decline.


To investigate the effects of propolis on cognitive decline and systemic inflammation in elderly people living at high altitude.


Sixty participants (average 72.8 years) living at altitude (2,260 meters) were randomized to receive propolis (0.83 g, n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 24 months. Cognitive outcomes were assessed using MMSE and serum cytokine levels were measured for 24 months in a double-blind study.


MMSE scores were 26.17 at baseline and 23.87 at 24 months in placebo group. Compared to placebo group, improvements of MMSE scores were significant in propolis-treated subjects (p  =  0.007) with a response emerging over time (time points×group interaction, p  =  0.016). In addition, the serum IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly different across treatments (p  <  0.0001) showing upward and downward trends in placebo- and propolis-treated subjects, respectively (p  <  0.0001). Serum levels of TNF-α were not significantly different across treatment (p  =  0.0528) but with a response emerging over time (time points×group interaction, p  =  0.016). In contrast, serum levels of TGFβ1 were significantly different across treatments (p  <  0.0001) showing downward and upward trends in placebo- and propolis-treated subjects, respectively. Serum levels of IL-10 were significant for the effect of groups (p  =  0.0411). Furthermore, MMSE scores correlated with the decrease in IL-1β and the increase in TGFβ1 in serum.


Elderly people living at high altitude developed to MCI in 24 months with exacerbation of systemic inflammation. Ingestion of propolis (>12 months) protected against cognitive decline after systemic inflammation was reduced.