Sunday, December 10, 2017

Hydrophilic Bioactive Components of Greek Royal Jelly

Targeted profiling of hydrophilic constituents of royal jelly by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

J Chromatogr A. 2017 Nov 13. pii: S0021-9673(17)31667-9

In the present work a Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method was developed for the efficient separation and quantification of a large number of small polar bioactive molecules in Royal Jelly.

The method was validated and provided satisfactory detection sensitivity for 88 components. Quantification was proven to be precise for 64 components exhibiting good linearity, recoveries R% > 90% for the majority of analytes and intra- and inter-day precision from 0.14 to 20% RSD.

Analysis of 125 fresh royal jelly samples of Greek origin provided useful information on royal jelly's components revealing lysine, ribose, proline, melezitose and glutamic acid to be in high abundance. In addition the occurrence of 18 hydrophilic nutrients which have not been reported previously as royal jelly constituents is shown.

Saturday, December 09, 2017

Indian Propolis Shows Anti-Cancer Effect

Standardization, chemical profiling, in vitro cytotoxic effects, in vivo anti-carcinogenic potential and biosafety profile of Indian propolis

J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2017 Dec 4. pii: S0975-9476(17)30185-7


Propolis from apiculture is known for wide range of medicinal properties owing to its vast chemical constituents including polyphenols, flavonoids and anticancer agent Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE).


The objective of the study was to extract and standardize Indian propolis (IP) with respect to selected markers by newly developed High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, to evaluate in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity and biosafety of Indian propolis.


IP was extracted, optimized and standardized using a newly developed and validated HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of caffeic acid, apigenin, quercetin and CAPE. The standardised ethanolic extract of IP (EEIP) was screened for in vitro cytotoxicity using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, in vivo anti-carcinogenic effect against Dalton's Lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells, hemolytic effect and pesticide analysis.


The EEIP was found to contain more amount of total flavonoids (23.61+ 0.0452 mg equivalent of quercetin/g), total polyphenolics (34.82 + 0.0785 mg equivalent of gallic acid/g) and all selected markers except caffeic acid compared to all other extracts. EEIP showed better anti-cancer potential than CAPE on MCF-7 and HT-29 cell line and significant (p < 0.01) in vivo anti-carcinogenic effects against DLA in comparison with 5-fluorouracil. EEIP was found to be non-hemolytic.


From in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo anti-carcinogenicity and biosafety studies it can be concluded that the standardized EEIP is safe and can be considered for further development as a biomedicine.

Friday, December 08, 2017

Manuka Honey Helps Treat Severe Atopic Eczematous Dermatitis

Manuka Honey: A Case Study of Severe Atopic Eczematous Dermatitis Reaction to Henna Tattoo

Plast Surg Nurs. 2017 Oct/Dec;37(4):154-157

Many mainstream medications were derived from plants and originally utilized in patient management well prior to the extensive research and testing processes of current pharmaceutical standards. The evolution of therapeutic management within the pharmaceutical and skin care industry often uses synthetic processing of products with less of a focus on the natural ingredients from which they were originally derived.

However, more recently there has been a shift in pharmacological management to include the therapeutic use of more holistic medicines and practices and thus a broadening of the uses of nontraditional medical treatment options. This has been seen in the use of treatments, such as Manuka honey, for skin conditions and dermal injuries. It is often with off-label uses, or conditions resistant to other treatments, that then prompt the use of holistic products and the true value of the product is validated.

As with the following case study, the example of the use of Manuka honey on a severe atopic contact dermatitis eczematous reaction provides further documentation and supportive evidence of the potential efficacy of the properties of this particular natural product.

Thursday, December 07, 2017

Propolis Component Useful in Treatment of Acute Lung Injury

Discovery of caffeic acid phenethyl ester derivatives as novel myeloid differentiation protein 2 inhibitors for treatment of acute lung injury

Eur J Med Chem. 2017 Dec 1;143:361-375

Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) is an essential molecule which recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to initiation of inflammation through the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) from propolis of honeybee hives could interfere interactions between LPS and the TLR4/MD2 complex, and thereby has promising anti-inflammatory properties.

In this study, we designed and synthesized 48 CAPE derivatives and evaluated their anti-inflammatory activities in mouse primary peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) activated by LPS. The most active compound, 10s, was found to bind with MD2 with high affinity, which prevented formation of the LPS/MD2/TLR4 complex. The binding mode of 10s revealed that the major interactions with MD2 were established via two key hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, 10s showed remarkable protective effects against LPS-caused ALI (acute lung injury) in vivo.

Taken together, this work provides new lead structures and candidates as MD2 inhibitors for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs.

Wednesday, December 06, 2017

Honey Effective as Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis in Paediatric Oncology Patients

Global Health Journal Club: Is Honey Effective as a Treatment for Chemotherapy-induced Mucositis in Paediatric Oncology Patients?

J Trop Pediatr. 2017 Nov 30

Oral mucositis (OM) is an inflammatory response of mucosal epithelium to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy causing severe oral pain and ulceration, which may complicate the management of cancer. The Mucositis Prevention Guideline Development Group has developed an international guideline for the prevention of mucositis in children receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Evidence-based preventative strategies include cryotherapy, low-level light therapy and keratinocyte growth factor. However, these strategies are often not available in resource-poor settings. There is some evidence that honey may be a suitable treatment for OM in adult patients. We performed a literature search of 11 databases to find papers exploring the use of honey to treat chemotherapy-associated mucositis in paediatric oncology patients.

We found four papers, which provide Grade C evidence that honey is effective as a preventative and therapeutic measure for OM in paediatric oncology patients.

Monday, December 04, 2017

Give Children Honey and Lemon, Not Cough Medicine Says Top Doc

By Henry Bodkin, 1 December 2017 

Children should not be given cough medicine but should instead be treated with “old fashioned” honey and lemon, a leading paediatrician has said.

Using over-the-counter syrups and medications risk unintentionally overdosing toddlers and causing “toxic” events, according to Dr Oliver Bevington, from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health.

Chair of the college’s trainees’ committee, Dr Bovington said there was no evidence cough medicines work and added they can end “actually end up doing more harm than good”.

Most childhood coughs and colds get better simply with rest, fluids and possibly paracetamol or ibuprofen, he said.

The intervention follows an announcement by the NHS earlier this year saying it would no longer fund free cough mixture.

“A lot of cough and cold medicines contain active ingredients such as nasal decongestants, antihistamines and cough suppressors that may, in large doses, have adverse effects or be toxic if consumed in large quantities, particularly to the under-sixes who are much more susceptible,” he said.

“The bottom line is there is absolutely no evidence that cough medicines work as there has been very little research with regards to their use and, potentially, they could actually do children more harm than good.

“My advice for parents would be to stick to old fashioned honey and lemon.”...

Sunday, December 03, 2017

Bee Venom Component Inhibits Tumor Growth

The anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activity of Mel-P15 is mediated by natural killer cells

Oncol Lett. 2017 Dec;14(6):6901-6906

Mel-P15 is a peptide derived from melittin, the main toxic component in the venom of the European honeybee Apis mellifera.

In the present study, the antitumor effects of Mel-P15 and the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects in vivo were investigated. Mel-P15 directly stimulated natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in vitro, which was increased to 55.45% at a 4 µg/ml dose of Mel-P15. In the mouse liver cancer (H22) xenograft mice model, Mel-P15 suppressed tumor growth in vivo; the tumor inhibitory rate was 61.15% following treatment with 2 mg/kg Mel-P15. In addition, the immune response was activated following Mel-P15 treatment. Mel-P15 treatment increased the spleen and thymus indices, promoted splenocyte proliferation, stimulated NK cytotoxicity and upregulated the secretion of cytokines, including interleukin-2, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. In addition, the tumor inhibitory effect of Mel-P15 on BEL-7402-bearing nude mice was abrogated by the selective depletion of NK cells via the intraperitoneal injection of an anti-asialo GM-1 antibody.

The results suggest that Mel-P15 inhibits tumor growth in vivo by promoting NK cell cytotoxicity. Mel-P15 may therefore be a potential immunotherapy candidate for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Saturday, December 02, 2017

Bee Bread Shows Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effect

Antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread (honey and pollen) in aluminum-induced anemia, elevation of inflammatory makers and hepato-renal toxicity

J Food Sci Technol. 2017 Dec;54(13):4205-4212

Aluminum toxicity might be related to oxidative stress, and the antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread, which contains pollen, honey and bees' enzymes, on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity was investigated in rats.

Chemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of bee bread were conducted. The animal experiment in rats included; group 1: received distilled water (10 ml/kg b.wt), group 2: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt), group 3: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt) and ethanolic extract of the bee bread (500 mg/kg b.wt), and group 4: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt) and ethanolic extract of the bee bread (750 mg/kg b.wt). Doses were given once daily via a gavage. C-reactive protein, transaminases, urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, sodium and potassium and urine sodium and potassium were determined on day 28 of the experiment.

Bee bread contained protein, fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrate, phenol and flavonoids and it exhibited antioxidant activity. Aluminum caused a significant elevation of blood urea, transaminase, C-reactive protein and monocyte count and significantly decreased hemoglobin. These changes were significantly ameliorated by the use of bee bread.

Bee bread has an antioxidant property, and exhibited a protective effect on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity and elevation of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, leukocyte and monocyte counts.

Friday, December 01, 2017

Honey Has Significant Diuretic Activity Alone or in Combination with Propolis

Antioxidant and diuretic activity of co-administration of Capparis spinosa honey and propolis in comparison to furosemide

Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2017 Oct;10(10):974-980


To study the antioxidant properties of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) honey and propolis and the effect of combined honey and propolis administration on urine volume and electrolytes in rats.


C. spinosa honey [1000 mg/kg body weight (b.wt)], propolis (100 mg/kg b.wt), honey/propolis mixture (C. spinosa honey 1000 mg/kg b.wt/ propolis extract 100 mg/kg b.wt ), distilled water (1 mL/kg b.wt) and furosemide (10 mg/kg b.wt) were orally administered to five groups of rats for 21 d. Urine volume, blood and urine sodium, potassium and chloride were measured. The antioxidant activity of propolis and honey was assessed and their total phenols and flavonoids were determined.


Propolis and C. spinosa honey contain polyphenols including flavonoids and propolis demonstrated higher antioxidant activities than honey. Honey significantly increased urine volume and urine electrolyte excretion. Propolis had no significant effect on urine volume, but co-administration of propolis and honey caused significant diuresis. No major changes were observed in plasma electrolytes with the use of honey, propolis or their combination.


Honey and propolis have antioxidant activity and contain polyphenols including flavonoids that are more pronounced in propolis. Honey has a significant diuretic activity alone or in combination with propolis. This is the first study comparing the diuretic effect of co-administration of propolis and C. spinosa honey with furosemide.